Enter your search into one or more of the boxes below:
You can refine your search by selecting from any of the options below:
La ultima gaviota: Liberalism and Nostalgia in Early Twentieth-Century Panama

La ultima gaviota: Liberalism and Nostalgia in Early Twentieth-Century Panama (Hardback)

Usually despatched within 2 weeks.
Order now for Free delivery in the UK.
More on delivery...


This study examines the development of Panamanian nationalism, focusing on the period from 1903 to 1941. Utilizing historiography, literature, public architecture, and monuments, Szok posits that Panamanian nationalism is, in part, a legacy of the nineteenth century when Panama experienced a nationalist movement typical of the rest of Latin America. This movement was a creation of the country's white elite, who feared the Afro-mestizo masses and sought the protection of outside powers. Later joining forces with the growing middle class, the upper class continued to emphasize liberalism and promoted nostalgia for things Hispanic. This effort left it largely divorced from the Afro-Caribbean culture of the terminal cities and would ultimately contribute to its loss of power in 1968. The elite's goal of constructing an interoceanic canal that would Europeanize the isthmus and open it to investment was realized in 1903 with the intervention of the United States and the separation from Colombia. The canal and independence soon fostered a rising middle class who became disillusioned with post-independence society and the limits placed upon its professional advancement.

Once united with the elite in the protection of their own interests, the middle class used nostalgia to protect their social position even as they continued to press for modernization. Szok challenges some long-held stereotypes of Panama, particularly that it was invented by the United States and that its development is unique and thus lies outside the trajectory of Latin America.

PETER A. SZOK is Assistant Professor of History at Eastern Kentucky University.

More books by Peter A. Szok

Leave Review


Delivery Options

All delivery times quoted are the average, and cannot be guaranteed. These should be added to the availability message time, to determine when the goods will arrive. During checkout we will give you a cumulative estimated date for delivery.

Location 1st Book Each additional book Average Delivery Time
UK Standard Delivery FREE FREE 3-5 Days
UK First Class £4.50 £1.00 1-2 Days
UK Courier £7.00 £1.00 1-2 Days
Western Europe** Courier £17.00 £3.00 2-3 Days
Western Europe** Airmail £5.00 £1.50 4-14 Days
USA / Canada Courier £20.00 £3.00 2-4 Days
USA / Canada Airmail £7.00 £3.00 4-14 Days
Rest of World Courier £22.50 £3.00 3-6 Days
Rest of World Airmail £8.00 £3.00 7-21 Days

** Includes Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Irish Republic, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland.

Delivery Help & FAQs

Returns Information

If you are not completely satisfied with your purchase*, you may return it to us in its original condition with in 30 days of receiving your delivery or collection notification email for a refund. Except for damaged items or delivery issues the cost of return postage is borne by the buyer. Your statutory rights are not affected.

* For Exclusions and terms on damaged or delivery issues see Returns Help & FAQs

You might also like

Israel, Diaspora, and the Routes of...
Jasmin Habib
Informal Nationalism After Communism:...
Abel Polese; Oleksandra Seliverstova;...
Art Museums of Latin America:...
Michele Greet; Gina McDaniel Tarver
The End of Europe: Dictators,...
James Kirchick
Latest Blog
On Memory and Forgetting

David Whitehouse talks to us about memory and forgetting, and how his personal experience influenced his new novel, The Long Forgotten.

The End of the F***ing World creator, Charles Forsman, picks his favourite coming of age books

The End of the F***ing World creator, Charles Forsman, picks his favourite coming of age books.

#FoylesFive: Annihilation

With the release of Annihilation on Netflix it's the perfect time to catch up with the book that starts Jeff VanderMeer's unsettling Southern Reach trilogy.

View all Blog Entries
Show/Hide Tweets
© W&G Foyle Ltd